Examination of the Synovial Liquid

Macroscopic Examination of the Artrocentesis from the Area of the Glenohumeral Articulation1

  1. Appearance of the artrocentesis



  1. Viscosity of the artrocentesis


According to the macroscopic appearance we are able to differ

an inflammatory exudate

a pyogenic exudate (bacterial etiology)

an uninflammatory, highly viscid and acellural exudate6 (idiopathic or a result of steroid therapy)

blood (unorganized haematoma) and bloody traumatogenic exudate



Microscopic Examination

  1. an examination of crystals

  2. a staining according to Gram



Cytological examination

  1. an absolute number of leucocytes

  2. a differential budget

  3. a searching for atypical findings f. e. LE of a cell or a tumourous cell

Biochemical examination

  1. CRP ( corresponds mostly to the number of blood cells, therefore we do not think that the examination is necessary)

  2. RF (in the case of positive RF the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is more probable)

Cultural Examination and Sensitiveness

This survey shows a standard examination which is made from each aspirated material. Of course this examination is not exhaustive, and in the case of necessity we have to send a sample to the specialized department due to other examinations (f. e. polarizing microscope).

1it is meant for any joint

6in the case of this finding we do not continue in another examination because we consider it to be needless, except the examination of crystals