A patient makes the movement himself/herself. This movement is necessary for a finding out of a normal function of muscles, tendons and a joint.
If the movement is not possible, then it can be the question of pathology of these structures.
A doctor makes the movement with a patient's limb. During this examination he rather finds out normal functions of the joint while the movement has no any influence of the function of muscles, and also their innervation.
A patient makes the movement against a resistance, and a change of a length of a muscle in the joint does not occur. During this examination we rather find out a normal function of muscles and nerves, and the joint does not participate in the movement.
We begin to examine
the extension of passive movements because after the passive movement the
patient is able to imitate a required action himself/herself, and so we also
examine the active movement without any
excessive explaining. The isometric movement (isometric contraction) is examined
as the last one.
On the basis of a different
extension of the movement
soresness during the examination
strength of the isometric contraction
we are able to differ some pathological states, see
following chapters examinations of movement in
the glenohumeral articulation and its meaning for the differential diagnostics.